2.1. Introduction to the DNS¶
In this book, you will find that I like to show you the code first, even if you don’t understand it clearly, and then explain to you how things work. Unfortunately, I cannot do that with DNS. You need to understand it first and then write the code. The big problem with DNS is that if you screw things up, even if you fix or revert things, it may be days before the system works again. So you need to read carefully.
When you open your browser and type http://djangodeployment.com/, the first thing your browser does is find the IP address of the machine djangodeployment.com. For this, it asks a component of the operating system called the “resolver”: “What is the IP address of djangodeployment.com?” After some time (usually from a few ms to a few seconds), the resolver replies: “It’s 22.214.171.124”. The browser then proceeds to open a TCP connection on port 80 of that address and use HTTP to request the required information (in our case the home page of djangodeployment.com).
What about IPv6?
If your computer has an IPv6 connection to the Internet, your browser will actually first ask the resolver for the IPv6 address of server. For djangodeployment.com, the resolver will eventually reply “It’s 2605:2700:0:3::4713:916d”. The browser will then attempt to connect to that IPv6 address. If there is any kind of error, such as the resolver being unable to find an IPv6 address (many web servers aren’t yet configured to use one), or the IPv6 address not responding (network errors are still more frequent with IPv6 than IPv4), the browser will fall back to using the IPv4 address, as I explained above.
The only thing the resolver does is ask another machine to do the actual resolving; that other machine is called a name server. Most likely you are using a name server provided by your Internet Service Provider. I will be calling that name server “your name server”, although it’s not exactly yours; but it’s the one you are using.
Which is my name server?
On Unix-like machines (including Mac OS X), the name server used is
stored in file
/etc/resolv.conf; the file is usually setup
during DHCP, but on systems with a static IP address it is often
edited manually. On Windows, you can determine the name server by
typing the command ‘ipconfig /all’, where it shows as “DNS Servers”;
it is setup during DHCP, but on systems with a static IP address it
is often edited manually in the network properties. Your system may
be configured to use more than one name server, in which case it
chooses one and uses another if the first one does not respond.
You might find out that the name server is your aDSL router. Actually your aDSL router is merely a so-called “forwarding” name server, which only transfers the query to another name server, which is the one that does the real magic. You can find which one it is by logging in your router’s web interface and browsing through its settings. It is setup during the establishment of the aDSL connection.
When I say “your name server” I don’t mean the forwarding name server, but the one that does the real job.
In order to find out the address that corresponds to a name, your name server makes a series of questions to other name servers on the Internet:
- First, your name server picks up one of thirteen so-called “root name servers”. The IP addresses of these thirteen name servers are well-known (the official list is at http://www.internic.net/domain/named.root) and generally do not change, and your name server is preprogrammed to use them. Your name server tells the chosen root name server something like this: “Hello, I’d like to know the IP address of djangodeployment.com please.”
- The root name server replies: “Hi. I don’t know the address of djangodeployment.com; you should ask one of these name servers, which are responsible for all domain names ending in ‘.com’” (and it supplies a number of IP addresses (actually thirteen).
- Your name server picks up one of the .com name servers and asks it: “Hello, I’d like to know the IP address of djangodeployment.com please.”
- The .com name server replies: “Hi. I don’t know the address of djangodeployment.com; you should ask one of these name servers, which are responsible for djangodeployment.com” (and it supplies a number of IP addresses, which at the time of this writing are three).
- Your name server picks up one of the three name servers and asks it: “Hello, I’d like to know the IP address of djangodeployment.com please.”
- The djangodeployment.com name server replies: “Sure, djangodeployment.com is 126.96.36.199”.
After your name server gets this information, it replies to the resolver, which in turn replies to your browser.
In this example, there were only six steps, but they could be more; for example, if you try to resolve cs.man.ac.uk, first the root servers will be asked, these will direct to the .uk name servers, which will direct to the .ac.uk name servers, and so on, for a total of 10 steps (this is not always the case; when resolving itia.civil.ntua.gr, the .gr servers refer you to the .ntua.gr servers, and these in turn refer you directly to the itia.civil.ntua.gr servers, for a total of 8 steps).
All this discussion between servers takes time and network traffic, so it only happens the first time you ask to connect to the web page. The results of the DNS query are heavily cached in order to make it faster for the next times. Typically web browsers cache such results for about half an hour, or until browser restart. Most important, however, your name server caches results for much longer. In fact, the response (6) above is not exactly what I wrote; instead, it is “Sure, djangodeployment is 188.8.131.52, and you can cache this information for up to 8 hours”. Equally important, the response (4) is “I don’t know the address of djangodeployment.com; you should ask one of these three name servers, which are responsible for djangodeployment.com, and you can cache this information (i.e. the list of name servers that are responsible for djangodeployment.com) for up to two days”. Caching times are configurable to various degrees and are usually from 5 minutes to 48 hours, but caching for a whole week is not uncommon. Rarely does your name server need to go through the complete list of steps; most often it will have cached the name servers for the top level domain, and sometimes it will also have cached some lower stuff.
So here is the big problem with DNS: it’s not hard to get it right (it’s easier than writing a Django program), but if you make the slightest error you might be stuck with the wrong information for up to two days (or even a week). If you make an error when configuring your domain name, and a customer attempts to access your site, the error may be cached by the customer’s name server for up to two days, and you can do nothing about it except fix the error and wait. There is no way to send a signal to all the name servers of the world and tell them “hey, please invalidate the cache for djangodeployment.com”. Different customers or visitors of your site will experience different amounts of downtime, depending on when exactly their local name server will decide to expire its cache.
2.2. Registering a domain name¶
You register a domain name with a registrar. Registrars are companies that provide the service of registering a domain name for you. These companies are authorized by ICANN, the organization ultimately responsible for domain names. So, before registering a domain name, you first need to select a registrar, and there are many. I’m using BookMyName.com, a French registrar which I selected more or less at random. Its web site is unpolished but it works. Another French registrar, particularly popular in the free software community, is Gandi, but it’s a bit more expensive than others. The most popular registrar worldwide is GoDaddy, but it supported SOPA, and for me that’s a deal breaker. Another interesting option is Namecheap; I think its software is nice and its prices are reasonable. If you don’t know what to do, choose that one. There are also dozens of other options, and it’s fine to choose another one. Note that I’m not affiliated with any registrar (and certainly none of the four I’ve mentioned).
For practice, you can go and register a cheap test domain; Namecheap, for example, sells some domains for $0.88 per year. Go get one now so that you can start messing around with it. Below I use ”.com” as an example, but if your domain is different ($0.88 domains certainly aren’t .com) it doesn’t matter, exactly the same rules apply.
When you register a .com domain name at the registrar’s web site, two things happen:
- The registrar configures some name servers to be the name servers for the domain. For example, when I registered djangodeployment.com at the web site of bookmyname.com, bookmyname.com configured three name servers (nsa.bookmyname.com, nsb.bookmyname.com, and nsc.bookmyname.com) as the djangodeployment.com name servers. These are the three servers that are involved in steps 5 and 6 of the resolving procedure that I presented in the previous section. I am going to call them the domain’s name servers.
- The registrar notifies the .com name servers that domain djangodeployment.com is registered, and that the site name servers are the three mentioned above. I am going to call the .com name servers the upstream name servers. If your domain is mydomain.co.uk, the upstream name servers are those responsible for .co.uk.
2.3. Adding records to your domain¶
The DNS database consists of records. Each record maps a name to a value. For example, a record says that the name djangodeployment.com corresponds to the value 184.108.40.206. Your registrar provides a web interface with which you can add, remove and edit records (in Namecheap you need to go to the Dashboard, Domain list, Manage (the domain), Advanced DNS). Go to your registrar’s interface and, for the test domain you created, create the following records (remember that $SERVER_IPv4_ADDRESS and $SERVER_IPv6_ADDRESS are placeholders and you need to replace them with something else; also omit the “AAAA” records if your server doesn’t have an IPv6 address):
Each record has a type. There are many different types of records, but the ones you need to be aware of here are A, AAAA, and CNAME. “A” defines an IPv4 address, whereas “AAAA” defines an IPv6 address. We will deal with CNAME a bit later.
When you see “@” as a name, I mean a literal “@” symbol. This is shorthand for writing the domain itself. If your domain is mydomain.com, then whether you enter “mydomain.com.” (with a trailing dot) or “@” in the field for the name is exactly the same thing. Some registrars might be allowing only the shorthand “@”, but often it is allowed to write “mydomain.com.”. Use the “@”, which is more common. The first of these four records means that the domain itself resolves to $SERVER_IPv4_ADDRESS. Likewise for the second record.
If your domain is mydomain.com, the next two records define the IP addresses for www.mydomain.com. In the field for the name, you can either write “www.mydomain.com.” (with a trailing dot), or “www”, without a trailing dot. Use the latter, which is more common. In the rest of the text, I will be using $DOMAIN and www.$DOMAIN instead of mydomain.com and www.mydomain.com, and you should understand that you need to replace “$DOMAIN” with your actual domain.
These four records are normally all you need to set. In theory you can set www.$DOMAIN to point to a different server than $DOMAIN, but this is uncommon. You can also define ftp.$DOMAIN and whateverelse.$DOMAIN, but this is often not needed.
The TTL, meaning “time to live”, is the maximum allowed caching time. When a name server asks the domain’s name server for the IPv4 address of $DOMAIN, the domain’s name server will reply “$DOMAIN is 220.127.116.11, and you can cache this information for 300 seconds”. Don’t make it less than 300; it will increase the number of queries your visitors will make, thus making responses a bit slower; and some name servers will ignore the TTL if it’s less than 300 and use 300 anyway. A common tactic is to use a large value (say 28800), and when for some reason you need to switch to another server, you reduce that to 300, wait at least 8 hours (28800 seconds), then bring the server down, change the DNS to point to the new server, then start the new server. If planned correctly and executed without problems, the switch will result in a downtime of no more than 300 seconds. After this is finished, you change the TTL to 28800 again.
You can usually leave the TTL field empty. In that case, a default TTL applies. The default TTL for the zone (“zone” is more or less the same as a domain) is normally configurable, but this may depend on the web interface of the registrar.
CNAME records are a kind of alias. For example, one of the domains I’m managing is openmeteo.org, and its database is like this:
The machine that hosts the web service for openmeteo.org is called ilissos.openmeteo.org. When the name server is queried for www.openmeteo.org, it replies: “Hi, www.openmeteo.org is an alias; the canonical name is ilissos.openmeteo.org.” So then it has to be queried again for ilissos.openmeteo.org. (However, you cannot use CNAME for the domain itself, only for other hosts within the domain.) On the right hand side of CNAMEs, you should always specify the fully qualified domain name and end it with a dot, such as “ilissos.openmeteo.org.”, as in the example above.
I used to use CNAMEs a lot, but now I avoid them, because they make first-time visits a little slower. Assume you want to visit “http://www.openmeteo.org/synoptic/irma”. Then these things happen:
- www.openmeteo.org is resolved, and it turns out to be an alias of ilissos.openmeteo.org.
- ilissos.openmeteo.org is resolved to an IP address.
- The request http://www.openmeteo.org/synoptic/irma is sent to the IP address. The web server redirects it to http://openmeteo.org/synoptic/irma, without the www.
- The request http://openmeteo.org/synoptic/irma is sent to the IP
address, and it is redirected to
http://openmeteo.org/synoptic/irma/, because I’m using
APPEND_SLASH = Truein Django’s settings.
- The request http://openmeteo.org/synoptic/irma/ is sent to the IP address, and this time a proper response is returned.
All these steps take a small amount of time which may add up to one second or more. This is only for the first request of first time visitors, but today people have little patience, and it’s a good idea for the visitor’s browser to start drawing something on the screen within at most one second, otherwise you will be losing a non-negligible number of visitors. Besides, a high quality web site should not have unnecessary delays. So lately I’ve stopped using CNAMEs, and I’ve stopped redirecting between URLs with and without the leading www.
2.4. Changing the domain’s name servers¶
As I said, when you register the domain, the registrar configures its own name servers to act as the domain’s name servers, and also tells the upstream name servers the ip addresses and/or names of the domain’s name servers. While this is normally sufficient, there are cases when you will want to use other name servers instead of the registrar’s name servers. For example, DigitalOcean offers name servers and a web interface to configure them, and if DigitalOcean’s web interface is easier, or if it integrates well with droplets making configuration faster, you might want to use that. In such a case, you can go to the registrar’s web interface and specify different name servers. The registrar will tell the upstream name servers which are your new name servers. It can’t setup the new name servers themselves, you have to do that yourself (e.g. via the DigitalOcean’s web interface if you are using DigitalOcean’s name servers).
In this case, you must be aware that while, as we saw in the previous section, you can configure the TTL for the DNS records of your domain, you cannot configure the TTL of the upstream name servers. The upstream name servers, when queried about your domain, respond with something like “the name servers for the requested domain are such and such, and you can cache this information for 2 days”. This TTL, typically 2 days, is not configurable by you, so you have to live with it. So changing name servers is a bit risky, because if you do anything wrong, different users will experience different downtimes that can last for up to 2 days.
Finally, some information about the NS record, which means “name server”. I haven’t told you, but the DNS database (the zone file, as it is called) for djangodeployment.com also contains these records:
(As you can see, there can be many records with the same type and name, and this is true of A and AAAA records as well—one name may map to many IP addresses, but we will not delve into that here.)
I have never really understood the reason for the existence of these records in the domain’s zone file. The upstream name servers obviously need to know that, but what’s the use of querying a domain’s name server about which are the domain’s name servers? Obviously I already know them. However, there is a reason, and these records need to be present both in the domain’s name servers and upstream.
In any case, these NS records are virtually always configured automatically by the registrar or by the web interface of the name server provider, so usually you don’t need to know more about it. What you need to know, however, is that DNS is a complicated system that easily fills in several books by itself. It will work well if you are gentle with it. If you want to do something more advanced and you don’t really know what you are doing, ask for help from an expert if you can’t afford the downtime.
2.5. Editing the hosts file¶
As I told you earlier, when your browser needs to know the IP address
that corresponds to a name, it asks your operating system’s resolver,
and the resolver asks the name server. It is possible to bypass the
asking of the name server and tell the resolver what answers to give.
This is done by modifying the
hosts file, which in Unixes is
/etc/hosts, and in Windows is
C:\Windows\System32\drivers\etc\hosts. Edit the file and add these
lines at the end:
18.104.22.168 mysite.com 22.214.171.124 www.mysite.com
Save the file, restart your browser (because, remember, it may be
caching names), and then visit mysite.com. It will probably fail to
connect (because 126.96.36.199 does not exist), but the thing is that
mysite.com has resolved to 188.8.131.52. The resolver found it in the
hosts file, so it did not ask the DNS server.
I often edit the
hosts file, for experimenting with a temporary
server without needing to change the DNS. Sometimes I want to redirect a
domain to another machine, for development or testing, and I want to do
this only for myself, without affecting the users of the domain. In such
hosts file comes in handy, and the changes made work
immediately, without needing to wait for DNS caches to expire.
The only thing that you must take care of is to remember to revert the
hosts file to its original contents; if you forget to do so, it
might cause you great headaches later (imagine wondering why the web
site you are deploying is different than what it should be, and
discovering, after hours of searching, that it was because of a
forgotten entry in
hosts). What I usually do is leave the editor
open and not close it until after I have reverted the file. When I don’t
do that thing, at least I make certain that the domain I’m playing with
example.com or anyway something very unlikely to ever be actually
used by me.
2.6. Visiting your Django project through the domain¶
In the previous chapter you ran Django on a server and it was reachable
through http://$SERVER_IPv4_ADDRESS/. Now you should have setup your
DNS and have $DOMAIN point to $SERVER_IPv4_ADDRESS. In your Django
ALLOWED_HOSTS to this:
ALLOWED_HOSTS = ['$DOMAIN', 'www.$DOMAIN']
Then run the Django development server as in the previous chapter:
./manage.py runserver 0.0.0.0:80
Now you should be able to reach your Django project via http://$DOMAIN/. So we fixed the first step; we managed to reach Django through a domain instead of an IP address. Next, we will run Django as an unprivileged user, and put its files in appropriate directories.
2.7. Chapter summary¶
- Register your domain at a registrar.
- Use the registrar’s web interface to specify A and AAAA records for the domain and for www.
- Be careful when you play with TTLs and when changing the domain’s name servers.
- If you do anything advanced with the DNS and you don’t really know what you’re doing and you can’t afford the downtime, ask for expert help.
ALLOWED_HOSTS = ['$DOMAIN', 'www.$DOMAIN'].
- Optionally use your local
hostsfile for experimentation.